Publication
IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
Paper

A New Technique for Fully Autonomous and Efficient 3D Robotics Hand/Eye Calibration

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Abstract

This paper describes a new technique for computing 3D position and orientation of a camera relative to the last joint of a robot manipulator in an eye-on-hand configuration. This is part of a trio for real-time 3D robotics eye, eye-to-hand, and hand calibrations, which use a common setup and calibration object, common coordinate systems, matrices, vectors, symbols, and operations throughout the trio, and is especially suited to machine vision community. It is easier and faster than any of the existing techniques, and is ten times more accurate in rotation than any existing technique using standard resolution cameras, and equal to the state-of-the-art vision based technique in terms of linear accuracy. The robot makes a series of automatically planned movements with a camera rigidly mounted at the gripper. At the end of each move, it takes a total of 90 ms to grab an image, extract image feature coordinates, and perform camera extrinsic calibration. After the robot finishes all the movements, it takes only a few milliseconds to do the calibration. A series of generic geometric properties or lemmas are presented, leading to the derivation of the final algorithms, which are aimed at simplicity, efficiency, and accuracy while giving ample geometric and algebraic insights. Besides describing the new technique, critical factors influencing the accuracy are analyzed, and procedures for improving accuracy are introduced. Test results of both simulation and real experiments on an IBM Cartesian robot are reported and analyzed. © 1989 IEEE

Date

01 Jan 1989

Publication

IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation

Authors

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