Fresnel zone plate lenses with feature sizes as small as 50 nm have been constructed and used in the Stony Brook/NSLS scanning X-ray microscope with 3.1 nm radiation from Brookhaven's X-17 mini-undulator. The zone plates were fabricated at IBM using electron beam writing techniques, moiré pattern techniques to monitor ellipticity, and a double development/double plating technique to provide additional thickness in the central region. A spatial resolution down to 75 nm was measured in the microscope. Using these zone plates, biological images were obtained of unaltered subcellular components. The images highlight protein concentration in unsectioned, unfixed, and unstained enzymatic granules in an aqueous environment. © 1988.