Initial readiness of EUV (extreme ultraviolet) patterning was demonstrated in 2016 with IBM Alliance's 7nm device technology. The focus has now shifted to driving the 'effective' k1 factor and enabling the second generation of EUV patterning. With the substantial cost of EUV exposure there is significant interest in extending the capability to do single exposure patterning with EUV. To enable this, emphasis must be placed on the aspect ratios, adhesion, defectivity reduction, etch selectivity, and imaging control of the whole patterning process. Innovations in resist materials and processes must be included to realize the full entitlement of EUV lithography at 0.33NA. In addition, enhancements in the patterning process to enable good defectivity, lithographic process window, and post etch pattern fidelity are also required. Through this work, the fundamental material challenges in driving down the effective k1 factor will be highlighted.