Reliability benefits of a metallic liner in confined PCM
We demonstrate outstanding resistance-drift (R-drift) mitigation and void elimination as reliability benefits of a thin metallic liner. By tuning the resistivity of the liner, the confined PCM with a metallic liner yields an extremely low R-drift coefficient (∼0.01). We also show for the first time that confined PCM could have a self-recovering property by incorporating a metallic liner. The experimental results with real-time in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) exhibit the robustness of the confined PCM that can recover by itself without any extra circuits.