Int. J. Heat Mass Transf.

Hot water cooled electronics: Exergy analysis and waste heat reuse feasibility

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We report an experimental study on exergetically efficient electronics cooling using hot water as coolant. It is shown that water temperatures as high as 60 °C are sufficient to cool microprocessors with over 90% first law (energy based) efficiency. The chip used in our experiment is kept at temperatures of 80 °C or below so as not to exceed any allowable industrial specifications for maximum microprocessor chip temperature. The use of hot water as coolant will eliminate the requirement for chillers typically used in aircooled data centers and, therefore, significantly reduce the power consumption. An exergy analysis shows that a six fold rise in second law (exergy based) efficiency is achieved by switching the water inlet temperature from 30 °C to 60 °C. The resulting high exergy at the heat sink outlet is a measure of the potential usefulness of the waste heat of data centers, thereby helping to design data centers with minimal carbon footprint. A new metric for the economic value of the recovered heat, based on costs for electricity and fossil fuels, heat recovery efficiency and an application specific utility function, is introduced to underscore the benefits of hot water cooling. This new concept shows that the economic value of the heat recovered from data centers can be much higher than its thermodynamic value. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.