Development of SiGe Indentation Process Control for Gate-All-Around FET Technology Enablement
Methodologies for characterization of the lateral indentation of silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanosheets using different non-destructive and in-line compatible metrology techniques are presented and discussed. Gate-all-around nanosheet device structures with a total of three sacrificial SiGe sheets were fabricated and different etch process conditions used to induce indent depth variations. Scatterometry with spectral interferometry and x-ray fluorescence in conjunction with advanced interpretation and machine learning algorithms were used to quantify the SiGe indentation. Solutions for two approaches, average indent (represented by a single parameter) as well as sheet-specific indent, are presented. Both scatterometry with spectral interferometry as well as x-ray fluorescence measurements are suitable techniques to quantify the average indent through a single parameter. Furthermore, machine learning algorithms enable a fast solution path by combining x-ray fluorescence difference data with scatterometry spectra, therefore avoiding the need for a full optical model solution. A similar machine learning model approach can be employed for sheet-specific indent monitoring; however, reference data from cross-section transmission electron microscopy image analyses are required for training. It was found that scatterometry with spectral interferometry spectra and a traditional optical model in combination with advanced algorithms can achieve a very good match to sheet-specific reference data.