Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena

Correction of non-linearity effects in detectors for electron spectroscopy

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Using photoemission intensities and a detection system employed by many groups in the electron spectroscopy community as an example, we have quantitatively characterized and corrected detector non-linearity effects over the full dynamic range of the system. Non-linearity effects are found to be important whenever measuring relative peak intensities accurately is important, even in the low countrate regime. This includes, for example, performing quantitative analysis for surface contaminants or sample bulk stoichiometries, where the peak intensities involved can differ by one or two orders of magnitude, and thus could occupy a significant portion of the detector dynamic range. Two successful procedures for correcting non-linearity effects are presented. The first one yields directly the detector efficiency by measuring a flat-background reference intensity as a function of incident X-ray flux, while the second one determines the detector response from a least-squares analysis of broad-scan survey spectra at different incident X-ray fluxes. Although we have used one spectrometer and detection system as an example, these methodologies should be useful for many other cases.© 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.