Sampling ARG of multiple populations under complex configurations of subdivision and admixture
Motivation: Simulating complex evolution scenarios of multiple populations is an important task for answering many basic questions relating to population genomics. Apart from the population samples, the underlying Ancestral Recombinations Graph (ARG) is an additional important means in hypothesis checking and reconstruction studies. Furthermore, complex simulations require a plethora of interdependent parameters making even the scenario-specification highly non-trivial. Results: We present an algorithm SimRA that simulates generic multiple population evolution model with admixture. It is based on random graphs that improve dramatically in time and space requirements of the classical algorithm of single populations. Using the underlying random graphs model, we also derive closed forms of expected values of the ARG characteristics i.e., height of the graph, number of recombinations, number of mutations and population diversity in terms of its defining parameters. This is crucial in aiding the user to specify meaningful parameters for the complex scenario simulations, not through trial-and-error based on raw compute power but intelligent parameter estimation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time closed form expressions have been computed for the ARG properties. We show that the expected values closely match the empirical values through simulations. Finally, we demonstrate that SimRA produces the ARG in compact forms without compromising any accuracy. We demonstrate the compactness and accuracy through extensive experiments. Availability and implementation: SimRA (Simulation based on Random graph Algorithms) source, executable, user manual and sample input-output sets are available for downloading at: https://github.com/ComputationalGenomics/SimRA.