Nuclear Instruments and Methods

Profiling hydrogen in materials using ion beams

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Over the last few years many ion beam techniques have been reported for the profiling of hydrogen in materials. We have evaluated nine of these using similar samples of hydrogen ion-implanted into silicon. When possible the samples were analysed using two or more techniques to confirm the ion-implanted accuracy. We report the results of this work which has produced a consensus profile of H in silicon which is useful as a calibration standard. The analytical techniques used have capabilities ranging from very high depth resolution (≈50 A ̊) and high sensitivity (< 1 ppm) to deep probes for hydrogen which can sample throughout thin sheets (up to 0.2 mm thick). © 1978.