Magnetic ordering in Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

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We report the structural and magnetic study of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films using x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). Epitaxial layers were grown on c-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy in a two-step process. High-resolution XRD shows the exceptionally high crystalline quality of the doped films with no parasitic phases up to a Cr concentration of 12% (in % of the Bi sites occupied by substitutional Cr). The magnetic moment, measured by SQUID magnetometry, was found to be ∼2.1 μB per Cr ion. The magnetic hysteresis curve shows an open loop with a coercive field of ∼10 mT. The ferromagnetic transition temperature was determined to be analyzing the magnetization-temperature gradient. PNR shows the film to be homogeneously ferromagnetic with no enhanced magnetism near the surface or interface.