ACS Energy Letters

Enhancement of Open-Circuit Voltage of Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells with 7.2% Efficiency by Incorporation of Silver

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Recently, considerable attention in the development of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells has been given to the reduction of antisite defects via cation substitution. In this Letter, we report the substitution of copper atoms by silver, incorporated into the crystal lattice through a solution processable method. We observe an increase in open-circuit voltage (VOC) by 50 mV and an accompanying rise in device efficiency from 4.9% to 7.2%. The incorporation of Ag is found to improve the grain size, enhance the depletion width of the pn-junction, and reduce the concentration of antisite defect states. This work demonstrates the promising role of Ag in reducing the VOC deficit of Cu-kesterite thin-film solar cells.