J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst.

Direct Sampling for Spatially Variable Extreme Event Generation in Resampling-Based Stochastic Weather Generators

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Resampling-based weather generators simulate new time series of weather variables by reordering the observed values such that the statistics of the simulated data are consistent with the observed ones. These generators are fully data-driven, easy to implement, and capable of reproducing the dynamics among weather variables. However, although the simulated time series is new, the weather fields produced at arbitrary time steps are replicas of those found in observations, limiting the spatial variability of simulations and preventing the generation of extreme weather fields beyond the range of observed values. To address these limitations, we propose the integration of the Direct Sampling algorithm—a data-driven method for producing simulations—into resampling-based weather generators. By incorporating Direct Sampling as a post-processing step on the outputs of the weather generator, we enhance the spatial variability of the generated weather fields and enable the generation of extreme weather fields. We introduce an approach for generating out-of-sample extreme weather fields using Direct Sampling. This method involves utilizing a set of control points in conjunction with Direct Sampling, where the values of these control points are informed by return period analysis. The proposed approach is validated using precipitation, temperature, and cloud cover weather fields in a region of northwest India. The experimental results confirm that Direct Sampling enhances the spatial variability of the weather fields and facilitates the generation of out-of-sample precipitation fields that accurately adhere to the spatial statistics provided by return precipitation level maps, as well as the observed precipitation weather field employed in the analysis.