Crystallization of hafnium-oxide-based ferroelectrics for BEOL integration
We review the crystallization of hafnium-oxide-based ferroelectrics intended for back-end-of-line (BEOL) integration. We discuss furnace, rapid thermal, and nanosecond Laser anneals of undoped and aluminum-doped HfO2 as well as of hafnium zirconium oxide, Hf1-xZrxO2. Crystallization and phase formation during rapid anneal is characterized via temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. We also demonstrate a ferroelectric tunnel junction formed via nanosecond Laser anneal of undoped HfO2.