A modular architecture for unsupervised sarcasm generation
In this paper, we propose a novel framework for sarcasm generation; the system takes a literal negative opinion as input and translates it into a sarcastic version. Our framework does not require any paired data for training. Sarcasm emanates from context-incongruity which becomes apparent as the sentence unfolds. Our framework introduces incongruity into the literal input version through modules that: (a) filter factual content from the input opinion, (b) retrieve incongruous phrases related to the filtered facts and (c) synthesize sarcastic text from the filtered and incongruous phrases. The framework employs reinforced neural sequence to sequence learning and information retrieval and is trained only using unlabeled non-sarcastic and sarcastic opinions. Since no labeled dataset exists for such a task, for evaluation, we manually prepare a benchmark dataset containing literal opinions and their sarcastic paraphrases. Qualitative and quantitative performance analyses on the data reveal our system's superiority over baselines, built using known unsupervised statistical and neural machine translation and style transfer techniques.