Publication
Journal of Applied Physics
Paper

The preparation of in situ doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon by homogeneous chemical vapor deposition

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Abstract

Raman scattering, infrared absorption, conductivity measurements, electron microprobe, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to characterize boron and phosphorus doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films prepared by Homogeneous Chemical Vapor Deposition (HOMOCVD). HOMOCVD is a thermal process which relies upon the gas phase pyrolysis of a source (silane containing up to 1.0% diborane or phosphine) to generate activated species for deposition upon a cooled substrate. Doped films prepared at 275°C by this process were found to contain ∼12-at. % hydrogen as determined by infrared absorption. We examined dopant incorporation from the gas phase, obtaining values for a distribution coefficient CD (film dopant content/gas phase dopant concentration, atomic basis) of 0.33≤CD ≤0.63 for boron, while 0.4≤CD ≤10.75 in the limits 3.3×10 -5≤PH3/SiH4≤0.004. We interpret the data as indicative of the formation of an unstable phosphorus/silicon intermediate in the gas phase, leading to the observed enhancements in CD at high gas phase phosphine content. HOMOCVD films doped at least as efficiently as their prepared counterparts, but tended to achieve higher conductivities [σ≥0.1 (Ωcm)-1 for 4.0% incorporated phosphorus] in the limit of heavy doping. Raman spectra showed no evidence of crystallinity in the doped films. Film properties (conductivity, activation energy of of conduction) have not saturated at the doping levels investigated here, making the attainment of higher "active" dopant levels a possibility. We attribute the observation that HOMOCVD appears more amenable to high "active" dopant levels than plasma techniques to the low (∼0.1 eV) thermal energy at which HOMOCVD proceeds, versus ∼10-100 eV for plasma techniques. Low substrate temperature (75°C) doped films were prepared with initial results showing these films to dope as readily as those prepared at high temperature (T∼275°C).

Date

01 Dec 1983

Publication

Journal of Applied Physics

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