While carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become popular in state-of-the-art nanotechnology, their biological safety and underlying molecular mechanism is still largely unknown. Experimental studies have been focused at the cellular level and revealed good correlations between cell's death and the application of CNTs or graphene. Using large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we theoretically investigate the potential toxicity of graphene to a biological cell at molecular level. Simulation results show that the hydrophobic protein-protein interaction (or recognition) that is essential to biological functions can be interrupted by a graphene nanosheet. Due to the hydrophobic nature of graphene, it is energetically favorable for a graphene nanosheet to enter the hydrophobic interface of two contacting proteins, such as a dimer. The forced separation of two functional proteins can disrupt the cell's metabolism and even lead to the cell's mortality.