HVEI 1998
Conference paper

Perceptual image similarity experiments

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In this paper, we study how human observers judge image similarity. To do so, we have conducted two psychophysical scaling experiments and have compared the results to two algorithmic image similarity metrics. For these experiments, we selected a set of 97 digitized photographic images which represent a range of semantic categories, viewing distances, and colors. We then used the two perceptual and the two algorithmic methods to measure the similarity of each image to every other image in the data set, producing four similarity matrices. These matrices were analyzed using multidimensional scaling techniques to gain insight into the dimensions human observers use for judging image similarity, and how these dimensions differ from the results of algorithmic methods. This paper aLso describes and validates a new technique for collecting similarity judgments which can provide meaningful results with a factor of four fewer judgments, as compared with the paired comparisons method.