On the origin of steep i - V nonlinearity in mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction-based access devices
Numerical modeling is used to explain the origin of the large ON/OFF ratios, ultralow leakage, and high ON-current densities exhibited by back-end-of-the-line-friendly access devices based on copper-containing mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction (MIEC) materials. Hall effect measurements confirm that the electronic current is hole dominated; a commercial semiconductor modeling tool is adapted to model MIEC. Motion of large populations of copper ions and vacancies leads to exponential increases in hole current, with a turn-ON voltage that depends on material bandgap. Device simulations match experimental observations as a function of temperature, electrode aspect ratio, thickness, and device diameter.