Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Efficient Methods for Natural Language Processing: A Survey

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Recent work in natural language processing (NLP) has yielded appealing results from scaling model parameters and training data; however, using only scale to improve per¬formance means that resource consumption also grows. Such resources include data, time, storage, or energy, all of which are naturally limited and unevenly distributed. This mo¬tivates research into efficient methods that require fewer resources to achieve similar re¬sults. This survey synthesizes and relates cur¬rent methods and findings in efficient NLP. We aim to provide both guidance for con-ducting NLP under limited resources, and point towards promising research directions for developing more efficient methods.