Dry heterometallic resist processing based on thermal sublimation deposition and development
A negative tone heterometallic ring resist (HRR) based on a supramolecular assembly [ NH2(allyl)2 ] [ Cr7NiF8(piv)16 ] with previously demonstrated resolution down to sub 10-nm lines is evaluated in terms of its flexibility to be processed either “wet” (spin cast and solvent developed) or “dry” (deposition and development by vacuum sublimation). The implemented sublimation hardware fits easily in the wafer load-lock chamber of extreme ultraviolet and electron beam exposure systems dedicated to research and development activities and allows for HRR films to be uniformly deposited or developed in the same vacuum environment. The HRR shows a sublimation rate dependence on temperature that obeys a Clausius–Clapeyron relation, with thermal stability up to 275°C. Flood exposures of the HRR show identical sensitivity between wet- and dry-deposited films, whereas contrast degradation is observed when dry development is initiated by increasing the temperature prior to system pump down. A modified sublimation setup allows for the dry development of exposed HRR samples inside the electron beam tool without breaking vacuum. In this case, nominally patterned 25 nm L/S are identically resolved at 30 keV for wet- or dry-developed HRR.