Physical Review Letters

Demonstration of weight-four parity measurements in the surface code architecture

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We present parity measurements on a five-qubit lattice with connectivity amenable to the surface code quantum error correction architecture. Using all-microwave controls of superconducting qubits coupled via resonators, we encode the parities of four data qubit states in either the X or the Z basis. Given the connectivity of the lattice, we perform a full characterization of the static Z interactions within the set of five qubits, as well as dynamical Z interactions brought along by single- and two-qubit microwave drives. The parity measurements are significantly improved by modifying the microwave two-qubit gates to dynamically remove nonideal Z errors.