Publication
Journal of Applied Physics
Paper

Au/Ti resistors used for Nb/Pb-alloy Josephson junctions. II. Thermal stability

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Abstract

In the preceding paper bilayered Au/Ti resistors were found to have excellent electrical stability during storage at room temperature after preannealing at an elevated temperature, which is essential to design logic and memory circuits of Nb/Pb-alloy Josephson junction devices. The resistors could contact directly with the Pb-alloy control lines in which Pb and In atoms which are known to intermix easily with Au atoms are contained. Since Pb and In atoms in the control lines are separated from Au atoms of the resistors by thin Ti layers, thermal stability at the contacts is a major concern for use of the Au/Ti resistor material in the Josephson devices. In the present study, surface morphology change and diffusion mechanism at the resistor/control-line contacts were studied using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy for square-shaped Au/Ti resistors covered by Pb-In layers. The samples were isothermally annealed at temperatures ranging from 353 to 423 K. The diffusion did not occur immediately after annealing at these temperatures. After the incubation period, the interdiffusion was observed to initiate at the edges of the resistors facing to the center of the cathode. Significant amounts of the In atoms in the Pb-In layers were observed to diffuse into the Au layers of the resistors, forming AuIn2 compounds under the Ti layers. By measuring growth rates of the AuIn2 layers, the diffusion coefficients and the activation energy for the layer growth were determined. Also, by analyzing changes in the In concentration in the Pb-In layers during annealing, interdiffusion coefficients of In atoms in the Pb-In layers were determined using a computer simulation technique. The activation energy was about 1.1 eV. Since these diffusion coefficients were found to be very close to those determined previously in bulk materials, the diffusion kinetics is believed to be controlled by the lattice diffusion. Based on the present results, several methods to reduce the interdiffusion between Pb-alloy and Au/Ti resistors were proposed.

Date

01 Dec 1984

Publication

Journal of Applied Physics

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