ALD-based confined PCM with a metallic liner toward unlimited endurance
We present for the first time in-depth analysis of the outstanding endurance characteristics of an ALD-based confined phase change memory (PCM)  with a thin metallic liner. Experimental results confirm that both the proper metallic liner and the confined pore cell structure are required for a reliability advantage. This confined PCM with a metallic liner is found to be immune to classic endurance failure mechanisms. The void-free confined PCM yields a new record endurance (2×1012 cycles) with stabilized elemental segregation that does not result in stuck-SET failure.