Active learning of quantum system Hamiltonians yields query advantage

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Hamiltonian learning is an important procedure in quantum system identification, calibration, and successful operation of quantum computers. Through queries to the quantum system, this procedure seeks to obtain the parameters of a given Hamiltonian model and description of noise sources. Standard techniques for Hamiltonian learning require careful design of queries and O(ϵ-2) queries in achieving learning error ϵ due to the standard quantum limit. With the goal of efficiently and accurately estimating the Hamiltonian parameters within learning error ϵ through minimal queries, we introduce an active learner that is given an initial set of training examples and the ability to interactively query the quantum system to generate new training data. To ensure applicability on near-term quantum hardware, the active learner operates in batch mode as opposed to sequentially, proposing batches of queries to be made during learning. We formally specify and experimentally assess the performance of this Hamiltonian active learning (HAL) algorithm for learning the six parameters of a two-qubit cross-resonance Hamiltonian on four different superconducting IBM quantum devices. Compared with standard techniques for the same problem and a specified learning error, HAL achieves more than a 95% reduction in queries required, and upwards of 33% reduction over a sequential active learner. Moreover, with access to prior information on a subset of Hamiltonian parameters and given the ability to select queries with linearly (or exponentially) longer system interaction times during learning, HAL can exceed the standard quantum limit and achieve Heisenberg (or super-Heisenberg) limited convergence rates during learning.