A Cryo-CMOS Wideband Quadrature Receiver With Frequency Synthesizer for Scalable Multiplexed Readout of Silicon Spin Qubits

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In this article, a cryo-CMOS receiver integrated with a frequency synthesizer for scalable multiplexed readout of qubits is presented, focusing on radio frequency (RF) reflectometry readout of silicon-based semiconductor spin qubits/quantum dots. The proposed spin qubit readout chip consists of a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA), a quadrature mixer, a complex filter, a pair of in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier chains, and a type-II charge-pump phase-locked loop (PLL) with a programmable frequency divider providing local oscillator (LO) signals. Noise optimizations are applied to the LNA design and the quadrature active mixer design to obtain the required performance. A mode-switching complementary voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed to achieve low-power and low-phase noise in a wide-frequency tuning range (46.5%). Circuit modifications and design considerations for robust cryogenic temperature operation are presented and discussed. Measurements show that the receiver provides an average gain of 65 dB, a minimum noise figure of 0.5 dB, an IF bandwidth of 0.1-1.5 GHz, and an image rejection ratio of 23 dB at 3.5 K with a power consumption of 108 mW. This cryo-CMOS receiver with frequency synthesizer for spin qubit readout is a first step toward fully-integrated qubit readout and control.