Validating a biosignature-predicting placebo pill response in chronic pain in the settings of a randomized controlled trial

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The objective of this study is to validate a placebo pill response predictive model-a biosignature-that classifies chronic pain patients into placebo responders (predicted-PTxResp) and nonresponders (predicted-PTxNonR) and test whether it can dissociate placebo and active treatment responses. The model, based on psychological and brain functional connectivity, was derived in our previous study and blindly applied to current trial participants. Ninety-four chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients were classified into predicted-PTxResp or predicted-PTxNonR and randomized into no treatment, placebo treatment, or naproxen treatment. To monitor analgesia, back pain intensity was collected twice a day: 3 weeks baseline, 6 weeks of treatment, and 3 weeks of washout. Eighty-nine CLBP patients were included in the intent-To-Treat analyses and 77 CLBP patients in the per-protocol analyses. Both analyses showed similar results. At the group level, the predictive model performed remarkably well, dissociating the separate effect sizes of pure placebo response and pure active treatment response and demonstrating that these effects interacted additively. Pain relief was about 15% stronger in the predicted-PTxResp compared with the predicted-PTxNonR receiving either placebo or naproxen, and the predicted-PTxNonR successfully isolated the active drug effect. At a single subject level, the biosignature better predicted placebo nonresponders, with poor accuracy. One component of the biosignature (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-precentral gyrus functional connectivity) could be generalized across 3 placebo studies and in 2 different cohorts-CLBP and osteoarthritis pain patients. This study shows that a biosignature can predict placebo response at a group level in the setting of a randomized controlled trial.