The next 700 BFT protocols
We present Abstract (ABortable STate mAChine replicaTion), a new abstraction for designing and reconfiguring generalized replicated state machines that are, unlike traditional state machines, allowed to abort executing a client's request if "something goes wrong." Abstract can be used to considerably simplify the incremental development of efficient Byzantine faulttolerant state machine replication (BFT) protocols that are notorious for being difficult to develop. In short, we treat a BFT protocol as a composition of Abstract instances. Each instance is developed and analyzed independently and optimized for specific system conditions. We illustrate the power of Abstract through several interesting examples. We first show how Abstract can yield benefits of a state-of-the-art BFT protocol in a less painful and errorprone manner. Namely, we develop AZyzzyva, a new protocol that mimics the celebrated best-case behavior of Zyzzyva using less than 35% of the Zyzzyva code. To cover worst-case situations, our abstraction enables one to use in AZyzzyva any existing BFT protocol. We then present Aliph, a new BFT protocol that outperforms previous BFT protocols in terms of both latency (by up to 360%) and throughput (by up to 30%). Finally, we present R-Aliph, an implementation of Aliph that is robust, that is, whose performance degrades gracefully in the presence of Byzantine replicas and Byzantine clients.