This is the first paper describing the IBM Blue Gene/Q interconnection network and message unit. The Blue Gene/Q system is the third generation in the IBM Blue Gene line of massively parallel supercomputers. The Blue Gene/Q architecture can be scaled to 20 PF/s and beyond. The network and the highly parallel message unit, which provides the functionality of a network interface, are integrated onto the same chip as the processors and cache memory, and consume 8% of the chip's area. For better application scalability and performance, we describe new routing algorithms and new techniques to parallelize the injection and reception of packets in the network interface. Measured hardware performance results are also presented. Copyright 2011 ACM.