IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence

Subµm Registration of Fiducial Marks Using Machine Vision

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Subµm registration between circularly symmetric fiducial marks can be achieved simply by finding their centroids by fitting circles to distributed edge positions determined by the second-derivative zero-crossing method. However, because of diffraction fringes, substantial errors originating in the tilt of the microscope ojtlical axis must be minimized. © 1994 IEEE