Instantaneous measurements of non-local observables between space-like separated regions can be performed without violating causality. This feat relies on the use of entanglement. Here we propose novel protocols for this task and the related problem of multipartite quantum computation with local operations and a single round of classical communication. Compared to previously known techniques, our protocols reduce the entanglement consumption by an exponential amount. We also prove a linear lower bound on the amount of entanglement required for the implementation of a certain non-local measurement. These results relate to position-based cryptography: an amount of entanglement scaling exponentially with the number of communicated qubits is sufficient to render any such scheme insecure. Furthermore, we show that certain schemes are secure under the assumption that the adversary has less entanglement than a given bound and is restricted to classical communication. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.