# Quantum codes, Topological Order, and Quantum Computation on Fractal Geometries

## Abstract

We investigate topological order on fractal geometries embedded in n dimensions. In particular, we diagnose the existence of the topological order through the lens of quantum information and geometry, i.e., via its equivalence to a quantum error-correcting code with a macroscopic code distance or the presence of macroscopic systoles in systolic geometry. We first prove a no-go theorem that ℤN topological order cannot survive on any fractal embedded in 2D. For fractal lattice models embedded in 3D or higher spatial dimensions, ℤN topological order survives if the boundaries of the interior holes condense only loop or membrane excitations. Moreover, for a class of models containing only loop or membrane excitations, and are hence self-correcting on an n-dimensional manifold, we prove that topological order survives on a large class of fractal geometries independent of the type of hole boundaries. We further construct fault-tolerant logical gates using their connection to global and higher-form topological symmetries. In particular, we have discovered a logical CCZ gate corresponding to a global symmetry in a class of fractal codes embedded in 3D with Hausdorff dimension asymptotically approaching DH=2+ϵ for arbitrarily small ϵ, which hence only requires a space-overhead Ω( $ d^{2+ϵ} $ ) with d being the code distance. This in turn leads to the surprising discovery of certain exotic gapped boundaries that only condense the combination of loop excitations and gapped domain walls. We further obtain logical CpZ gates with p≤n−1 on fractal codes embedded in nD. In particular, for the logical $ C ^{n−1} Z $ in the nth level of Clifford hierarchy, we can reduce the space overhead to $ Ω(d^{n−1+ϵ} $ ). Mathematically, our findings correspond to macroscopic relative systoles in fractals.