Capillary assembly was explored for the precise placement of 25 nm × 70 nm colloidal gold nanorods on prestructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) template surfaces. The concentration of nanorods and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the template wettability, and most critically the convective transport of the dispersed nanorods were tuned to study their effect on the resulting assembly yield. It is shown that gold nanorods can be placed into arrayed 120-nm diameter holes, achieving assembly yields as high as 95% when the local concentration of nanorods at the receding contact line is sufficiently high. Regular arrays of gold nanorods have several benefits over randomly deposited nanorod arrangements. Each assembled nanorod resides at a precisely defined location and can easily be found for subsequent characterization or direct utilization in a device. The former is illustrated by collecting scattering spectra from single nanorods and nanorod dimers, followed by subsequent SEM characterization without the need for intricate registration schemes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.