A literature review of plating of copper into through-holes and blind holes is provided. Emphasis is given to the scientific understanding of various phenomena associated with the processes being discussed. The topics include challenges posed to the plating processes, current state as well as the advantages and disadvantages of electroless and electroplated copper, copper distribution problems in electroplating of through-holes, and mass transport deficiency in plating vias and masked patterns. Criteria for quantitative evaluation of limitations of plating technology are discussed on the basis of published literature. © 1989, The Electrochemical Society, Inc. All rights reserved.