Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology

On cortical folds and neuromagnetic fields

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A folded cortical source of neuromagnetic fields, similar in configuration to the visual cortex, was stimulated. Cortical activity was modelled by different distributions of independent current dipoles. The map of the summed fields of the dipoles of this cruciform model changed, depending upon the statistical distribution of the electrical activity of the dipoles and its geometry. Arrays of dipoles of random orientations and strengths produced field patterns that could be interpreted as due to moving neural currents, although the geometry of the neural tissue remained unchanged and the average activity remained approximately constant. The field topography at any instant was apparently unrelated to the depth or orientation of the underlying structure, thus raising questions about how to interpret topographic MEG and EEG displays. Furthermore, asynchronous activity (defined as independent directions and magnitudes of activity of the dipoles) did not result in less field power than when the dipoles were synchronized, i.e., when the direction of current flow was correlated across all of the dipoles within the cruciform structure. Therefore, in this model 'alpha blockage' cannot be mimicked by desynchronization. More generally, for the cruciform or any other symmetrically folded and active cortical sheet, 'blockage' cannot be attributed to desynchronization. The same is true for the EEG except that smooth unfolded sheets of radially oriented dipoles would result in enhancement of voltage due to synchronization. Such radial dipoles do not contribute to the MEG. Blockage was stimulated by reducing the amount of activity within different portions of the synchronized cruciform model. This resulted in a dramatic increase in the net field because attenuation broke the symmetry of the synchronized cruciform structure. With asynchronous dipoles populating the structure, the attenuation of the same portion of the structure had no easily discerned effect on the net field. However, maps of average field power were consistently related to the position of the region of attenuated activity. The locations of regions of attenuated activity were determined by taking the difference between the mean square field pattern obtained when all portions of the cruciform structure were active and the pattern obtained when a portion of the structure was relatively inactive. When activity of the same portions were incremented rather than attenuated, the resulting plot of average power was essentially the same as that of the attenuated portion derived by taking these differences between power distributions. The major conclusions are that the concepts of synchronization and desynchronization have no explanatory power unless the physical conditions under which they occur are specified precisely. Also, we explain why changes in spontaneous activity of cortex associated with changes in cognitive states cannot be detected simply by averaging event-related brain activity. However, averaging field power (as opposed to field) does recover task-related modulation of brain activity. The fact that modulation of the spontaneous activity of specific parts of the brain may be detected and localized on the basis of external field measurements raises the exciting possibility that MEG can be used in functional brain imaging similar to PET. © 1991.


01 Jan 1991


Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology