IJCAI 2023
Conference paper

Neuro-Symbolic Learning of Answer Set Programs from Raw Data

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One of the ultimate goals of Artificial Intelligence is to assist humans in complex decision making. A promising direction for achieving this goal is Neuro-Symbolic AI, which aims to combine the interpretability of symbolic techniques with the ability of deep learning to learn from raw data. However, most current approaches require manually engineered symbolic knowledge, and where end-to-end training is considered, such approaches are either unable to learn solutions to problems of computational complexity greater than P, or are restricted to training binary neural networks. In this paper, we introduce Neuro-Symbolic Inductive Learner (NSIL), an approach that trains a general neural network to extract latent concepts from raw data, whilst learning symbolic knowledge that maps latent concepts to target labels. The novelty of our approach is a method for biasing the learning of symbolic knowledge, based on the in-training performance of both neural and symbolic components. We evaluate NSIL on three problem domains of different complexity, including an NP-complete problem. Our results demonstrate that NSIL learns expressive knowledge, solves computationally complex problems, and achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of accuracy and data efficiency. Code and technical appendix:



IJCAI 2023