It is shown that mean queue sizes, mean waiting times, and throughputs in closed multiple-chain queuing networks which have product-form solution can be computed recursively without computing product terms and normalization constants. The resulting computational procedures have improved properties (avoidance of numerical problems and, in some cases, fewer operations) compared to previous algorithms. Furthermore, the new algorithms have a physically meaningful interpretation which provides the basis for heuristic extensions that allow the approximate solution of networks with a very large number of closed chains, and which is shown to be asymptotically valid for large chain populations. © 1980, ACM. All rights reserved.