In this paper, we present a subcategory-aware recognition framework to boost category level object classification performance. Different from the existing monolithic model approaches, we aim to automatically leverage the embedded subcategory structure to assist the further category level recognition. Motivated by the observation of considerable intra-class diversities and inter-class ambiguities in many current object classification data sets, we explicitly split data into subcategories by ambiguity-guided subcategory mining. The resulting subcategories are seamlessly integrated into the state-of-the-art detection-assisted classification framework. In particular, we build the instance affinity graph by combining both intra-class similarity and inter-class ambiguity. Visual subcategories, which correspond to the dense subgraphs, are detected by the graph shift algorithm. We then train an individual model for each subcategory rather than an attempt to represent an object category with a monolithic model. Related samples, which are informative for subcategory classification, are utilized to regularize each subcategory model. Finally, the responses from subcategory models are aggregated by subcategory-aware kernel regression. The extensive experiments over the PASCAL visual object challenge (VOC) 2007 and PASCAL VOC 2010 databases show the state-of-the-art performance from our framework.