Publication
Physical Review Applied
Paper

Impact of Incorporation Kinetics on Device Fabrication with Atomic Precision

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Abstract

Scanning tunneling microscope lithography can be used to create nanoelectronic devices in which dopant atoms are precisely positioned in a Si lattice within approximately 1 nm of a target position. This exquisite precision is promising for realizing various quantum technologies. However, a potentially impactful form of disorder is due to incorporation kinetics, in which the number of P atoms that incorporate into a single lithographic window is manifestly uncertain. We present experimental results indicating that the likelihood of incorporating into an ideally written three-dimer single-donor window is 63±10% for room-temperature dosing, and corroborate these results with a model for the incorporation kinetics. Nevertheless, further analysis of this model suggests conditions that might raise the incorporation rate to near-deterministic levels. We simulate bias spectroscopy on a chain of comparable dimensions to the array in our yield study, indicating that such an experiment may help confirm the inferred incorporation rate.

Date

18 Nov 2021

Publication

Physical Review Applied

Authors

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