# Dual row modules and polyhedra of blocking group problems

## Abstract

Corresponding to every group problem is a row module. Duality for group problems is developed using the duality or orthogonality of the corresponding row modules. The row module corresponding to a group problem is shown to include Gomory's fractional cuts for the group polyhedron and all the vertices of the polyhedron of the blocking group problem. The polyhedra corresponding to a pair of blocking group problems are shown to have a blocking nature i.e. the vertices of one include some of the facets of the other and mutatis mutandis. The entire development is constructive. The notions of contraction, deletion, expansion and extension are defined constructively and related to homomorphic liftings and suproblems in a dual setting. Roughly speaking a homomorphic lifting is dual to forming a subproblem. A proof of the Gastou-Johnson generalization of Gomory's homomorphic lifting theorem is given, and dual constructions are discussed. A generalization of Gomory's subadditive characterization to subproblems is given. In the binary case, it is closely related to the work of Seymour on cones arising from binary matroids. © 1987 The Mathematical Programming Society, Inc.