For over twenty years, dual damascene copper interconnects have been the industry standard for advanced logic technologies. In this time, a continuous series of innovations has enabled scaling of the interconnect by a factor of 10. In recent years, however, the rate of scaling has slowed, and new advances will be needed to continue extending Moore’s Law. In this talk, I will discuss recent advances in interconnect research and the challenges that remain to continue scaling. Several recent innovations which enable the extension of the copper damascene integration scheme will be reviewed. I will also look at the options for scaling beyond copper damascene. Subtractive ruthenium has emerged as one of the most likely technologies to scale beyond copper. I will review the potential advantages of alternate metals, including ruthenium, as well as the challenges and advances that will enable scaling to the 1nm node and beyond.