Medication adherence is a medical and societal issue worldwide, with approximately half of patients failing to adhere to prescribed treatments. The goal of this Minireview is to examine how recent work on microfluidics for point-of-care diagnostics may be used to enhance adherence to medication. It specifically focuses on capillary microfluidics since these devices are self-powered, easy to use, and well established for diagnostics and drug monitoring. Considering that an improvement in medication adherence can have a much larger effect than the development of new medical treatments, it is long overdue for the research communities working in chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and material sciences to consider developing technologies to enhance medication adherence. For these reasons, this Minireview is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to provide a quick starting point for researchers interested in joining this complex but intriguing and exciting field of research.