Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), the world's largest publicly traded bank as measured by market capitalization, deposit volume, and profitability, has a network of over 16,000 branches. This network is an important core competency and is fundamental to ICBC business development. To keep its leading position in the fast-changing and competitive China market, ICBC needed to reconfigure its branch locations and service capabilities to match the regional economy and customer distribution; therefore, it had to quickly identify new high-potential market areas in which to open branches. ICBC partnered with IBM to customize an operations research-based branch network optimization system, Branch Reconfiguration (BR), which it has implemented in over 40 major cities in China. In a typical major city (e.g., Suzhou), ICBC attributes US $1.04 billion in increased deposits to BR. The BR project is an example of successfully using operations research and management sciences to transform the service channels of a large bank in a manner that will continue to improve the bank's business development and decision making. © 2012 INFORMS.