Biomechanics-guided Facial Action Unit Detection through Force Modeling
Existing AU detection algorithms are mainly based on appearance information extracted from 2D images, and well-established facial biomechanics that governs 3D facial skin deformation is rarely considered. In this paper, we propose a biomechanics-guided AU detection approach, where facial muscle activation forces are modelled, and are employed to predict AU activation. Specifically, our model consists of two branches: 3D physics branch and 2D image branch. In 3D physics branch, we first derive the Euler-Lagrange equation governing facial deformation. The Euler-Lagrange equation represented as an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is embedded into a differentiable ODE solver. Muscle activation forces together with other physics parameters are firstly regressed, and then are utilized to simulate 3D deformation by solving the ODE. By leveraging facial biomechanics, we obtain physically plausible facial muscle activation forces. 2D image branch compensates 3D physics branch by employing additional appearance information from 2D images. Both estimated forces and appearance features are employed for AU detection. The proposed approach achieves competitive AU detection performance on two benchmark datasets. Furthermore, by leveraging biomechanics, our approach achieves outstanding performance with reduced training data.