CGO 2010
Conference paper

Automatic creation of tile size selection models

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Tiling is a widely used loop transformation for exposing/exploiting parallelism and data locality. Effective use of tiling requires selection and tuning of the tile sizes. This is usually achieved by hand-crafting tile size selection (TSS) models that characterize the performance of the tiled program as a function of tile sizes. The best tile sizes are selected by either directly using the TSS model or by using the TSS model together with an empirical search. Hand-crafting accurate TSS models is hard, and adapting them to different architecture/compiler, or even keeping them up-to-date with respect to the evolution of a single compiler is often just as hard. Instead of hand-crafting TSS models, can we automatically learn or create them? In this paper, we show that for a specific class of programs fairly accurate TSS models can be automatically created by using a combination of simple program features, synthetic kernels, and standard machine learning techniques. The automatic TSS model generation scheme can also be directly used for adapting the model and/or keeping it up-to-date. We evaluate our scheme on six different architecture-compiler combinations (chosen from three different architectures and four different compilers). The models learned by our method have consistently shown near-optimal performance (within 5% of the optimal on average) across all architecture-compiler combinations. © 2010 ACM.