Computational Intelligence

A logic programming approach to cartographic map overlay

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Cartographic map overlay is the process of superimposing two maps into one to convey information in spatial correlation. A map refers to one in vector representation: a two‐dimensional spatial data structure of nodes, chains, and polygons. We present a map overlay system developed in Prolog. The system adopts a relational approach to data structuring. We represent geometric entities and their relationships as facts, and encode geometry algorithms in the rules. Set‐based operations perform data processing. To speed up the search for chain intersections, a uniform rectangular grid is imposed over the object space for spatial sorting by distribution. We sort out potentially intersecting edge segments to those occupying some common grid cell. Each bucket, if non‐empty, is implemented as a Prolog fact identifying the grid cell for random access. Geometric intersections are calculated using exact rational arithmetic implemented in Prolog. Numerical accuracy is preserved and we can identify all the special cases of tangent conditions. We can then guarantee topological consistency, and stability in the process of map overlay is therefore achieved. Copyright © 1990, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved


02 Apr 2007


Computational Intelligence