For decades, we have benefitted from modern cryptography
to protect our sensitive data during transmission and in
storage. However, we have never been able to keep the
data protected whilst it is being processed.
In the past, cryptographic schemes that allowed
processing on encrypted data were limited to partial
homomorphic schemes that could support only one
fundamental operation, namely either addition or
multiplication but not both. Then in 2009 IBM pioneered
Fully Homomorphic Encryption, which supports both
fundamental operations, thus enabling the processing of
data without giving access to it, however at this time
it was too slow for practical use.
In recent years, thanks to algorithmic advancements,
Fully Homomorphic Encryption has reached an inflection
point where its performance is becoming practical. This
has revolutionized security and data privacy and how we
outsource computation to untrusted clouds.