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November 2012

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The problem was originally proposed almost a century ago (see Polya, G., "Zahlentheoretisches und wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretisches uber die sichtweite im walde," Arch. Math. Phys., 27 (1918): 135-142).

The answer is 1/sqrt(d), where d is the smallest integer satisfying d=a^2+b^2, where a is co-prime to b, and d>=R^2.

Clearly, d<=R^2+1 by choosing a=R and b=1; and d can be R^2 if and only if all the prime factors of R are 1 modulo 4.

In our case, R=9801=3^4*11^2, so the critical radius is 1/sqrt(R^2+1) which is 0.000102030404529629...

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