Transmission electron microscopy of specimens and processes in liquids
Transmission electron microscopy is a powerful technique for the analysis of solid samples, but it can also be used to image in liquid environments, gaining a unique view of processes and structures in liquids. Here, we describe recent developments in electron microscopy of liquids and discuss applications in several areas. We first describe closed-liquid-cell microscopy with its opportunities for visualizing electrochemical processes. We then discuss imaging of low-vapor-pressure liquids relevant to the operation of rechargeable batteries. Finally, we describe imaging of thick biological materials to obtain information on membrane proteins in intact mammalian cells that cannot be observed classically under dry or frozen conditions. Electron microscopy in liquid environments is developing rapidly and has the potential to solve key problems in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology.