As cloud computing has become a popular computing paradigm, many companies have begun to build increasing numbers of energy hungry data centers for hosting cloud computing applications. Thus, energy consumption is increasingly becoming a critical issue in cloud data centers. In this paper, we propose a dynamic resource management scheme which takes advantage of both dynamic voltage/frequency scaling and server consolidation to achieve energy efficiency and desired service level agreements in cloud data centers. The novelty of the proposed scheme is to integrate timing analysis, queuing theory, integer programming, and control theory techniques. Our experimental results indicate that, compared to a statically provisioned data center that runs at the maximum processor speed without utilizing the sleep state, the proposed resource management scheme can achieve up to 50.3% energy savings while satisfying response-time-based service level agreements with rapidly changing dynamic workloads. © 2014 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.