Ramp-Rate-Constrained Bidding of Energy and Frequency Reserves in Real Market Settings
The energetic flexibility of electric energy resources can be exploited when trading on wholesale energy and ancillary service markets. This paper considers the problem of a Balance Responsible Party to maximize its profit from trading on energy markets while simultaneously offering Secondary Frequency Reserves to the System Operator. However, the accurate provision of regulation power can be compromised by power ramp-rate limitations of the resources providing the service. To avoid this shortcoming, we take power ramp-rate constraints into account explicitly when computing optimal adjustable energy trading policies that are robust against uncertain activation of reserves. The approach proposed is applicable in real market settings because it models all the different timescales of the day-ahead, intra-day, and reserve markets. Finally, the effect of different market settings and energy trading policies on the amount of available Secondary Frequency Reserves is investigated.